Roberts listed criteria for a mass casualty incident (MCI) for runners in a marathon. The same criteria can be applied to any large community gathering.


A mass casualty incident is one that where the number of casualties exceed the response capabilities of the community using routine procedures.


Factors that may impose a limit on the handling of a casualty:

(1) availability of ambulances

(2) number of emergency room beds

(3) emergency response staffing

(4) resources required to treat patients


Factors impacting the MCI:

(1) The rate at which the casualties present (influx)

(2) The intensity of service required.

(3) The length of time that a casualty uses resources.

(4) The ability to predict and to prepare for the influx.


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