Criteria for the diagnosis of failure to control upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with portal hypertension were proposed at the Baveno IV Consensus Workshop. The workshop was held from April 28-29, 2005 in Italy.


Time interval for assessment: 120 hours (5 days)


Failure of therapy consists of one or more of the following:

(1) fresh hematemesis >= 2 hours after therapy (start of drug, endoscopy, etc)

(2) aspiration of > 100 mL of fresh blood from a naso-gastric tube (presumably >= 2 hours after therapy)

(3) drop in hemoglobin >= 3.0 grams if no transfusion given

(4) adjusted blood requirement index (ABRI) >= 0.75 at any time if transfused

(5) death


Time to failure is the number of hours between intervention and the time that failure was diagnosed.


Failure indicates the need to change therapy (unless the patient died).


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