Rarely an apparently normal spleen may rupture without known trauma. This can be diagnosed if specific criteria are met.
Criteria for spontaneous rupture of a spleen - all of the following should be present:
(1) A careful and thorough history is negative for trauma or unusual activity that could explain a splenic rupture.
(2) There is no evidence of disease in another organ that might affect the spleen and cause it to rupture (for example, bacterial endocarditis).
(3) There are no perisplenic adhesions or areas of fibrosis to suggest a past history of splenic trauma or rupture.
(4) The spleen looks normal grossly and microscopically other than for the areas of rupture and hemorrhage (absence of gross or microsopic lesions).
(5) There is no microscopic, serologic or molecular evidence for an infectious agent that is associated with splenic rupture.
Most of these criteria are criteria of exclusion.
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Specialty: Hematology Oncology, Clinical Laboratory