Substance dependence is a maladaptive pattern in a person's use of a substance, indicating impaired control over the its use and associated with clinically significant impairment or distress.



(1) 3 or more of the following 7 findings,

(2) occurring at any time in the same 12 month period.


If findings 1 or 2 are present, then the person is said to have physiological dependence.



(1) tolerance:

(2) withdrawal on discontinuation

(3) intake is more and longer than intended.

(4) unsuccessful efforts to cut down use

(5) a good deal of time involved with getting or using the substance

(6) use causes reduction in important social, occupational, or recreational activities

(7) use continues despite evidence that harmful


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