Respiratory failure can be diagnosed in children with acute pulmonary disease based on certain general criteria.





decreased or absent inspiratory breath sounds


severe inspiratory retractions and use of accessory muscles


cyanosis in 40% oxygen (FIO2 0.40)


depressed level of consciousness and response to pain


poor skeletal muscle tone


PaCO2 >= 75 mm Hg


PaO2 <= 100 mm Hg in 100% oxygen (*)

(*) The table in the original paper says "PaCO2<= 100 mm Hg". This seems to be an error.


acute respiratory failure can be diagnosed if

(1) 3 clinical findings is present AND

(2) 1 physiologic finding is present


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