If a vaccination program reduces health care costs, then it can be economically justified. The total benefit can be harder to measure and would include consideration of all improvements to the community.


mean cost savings =

= (mean hospitalization costs for unvaccinated subjects) - (mean hospitalization costs for vaccinated subjects) - (mean costs of the influenza vaccination program)


total cost savings =

= (mean cost savings) * (number of people vaccinated)



• If the total cost savings are significant, then the vaccination program is considered economically successful.

• If the total cost savings are very small or negative, then the vaccination program is economically unsuccessful. This could arise if the vaccination did not protect against the underlying disease, if the program was not performed properly, or if the vaccination was associated with complications.



• Using only small numbers of people for comparison could be misleading.

• Since only mean costs are considered, outliers with very high medical expenses could affect the analysis.

• The cost savings above does not incorporate social cost savings (in reduced days lost to illness, lost productivity, etc.) and emotional benefits (in reduced stress and coping).


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