The Cornell product or voltage product is calculated by multiplying the Cornell voltage sum by the duration of the QRS complex.


(1) Cornell voltage sum in mV

(2) duration of the QRS complex in milliseconds


Cornell voltage sum =

= (S in V3 in mV) + (R in aVL in mV)


The Cornell voltage score can be expressed in mV or mm. Norman et al express it in mm.


Cornell product in mm×ms =

= (Cornell voltage sum in mm) * (duration of QRS complex)


According to Havranek et al, left ventricular hypertrophy is indicated by a product greater than 2,436 in males and 2,444 (2436 + 8) in females.


According to Norman et al





sensitivity 50%

1,976 mm×ms

1,453 mm×ms

specificity 85%

2,091 mm×ms

1,519 mm×ms


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