Tsai et al identified risk factors associated with hospital admission for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors are Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Case Western Reserve University and the University of Alberta.


Risk factors associated with being admitted to the hospital:

(1) older age

(2) female gender

(3) use of inhaled corticosteroids during the past week

(4) presence of pneumonia

(5) increased respiratory rate

(6) activity limitations during the past 24 hours

(7) greater lifetime pack years of smoking

(8) private insurance

(9) Hispanic or Caucasian

(10) received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the ED


Factors associated with a lower risk of being admitted:

(1) Emergency Department usual site for management of COPD problems

(2) combination of COPD and asthma


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