Transesophageal echocardiography should not be performed, or else performed with caution, if certain contraindications are present. While complications are rare if performed by an experienced operator, they can occur and may be serious. The procedure should only be performed if the expected benefits outweigh the potential risks.


Absolute contraindications:

(1) esophageal tumor

(2) esophageal stenosis

(3) esophageal stricture

(4) esophageal diverticulum

(5) advanced esophageal varices

(6) perforated viscus

(7) gastric volvulus

(8) gastrointestinal bleeding

(9) uncooperative patient


Relative contraindications:

(1) history of esophageal surgery

(2) radiation therapy involving the esophagus

(3) orophayrngeal distortion

(4) cervical spondylosis

(5) severe cervical arthritis

(6) severe cardiopulmonary distress

(7) suspected esophageal varices


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