Frontotemporal dementia (FTD, or Pick's disease) can be diagnosed based on clinical findings using consensus criteria.


Primary criteria - all must be present:

(1) insidious onset

(2) gradual progression

(3) early decline in social interpersonal conduct

(4) early impairment in regulation of personal conduct

(5) early emotional blunting

(6) early loss of insight


Supportive criteria - behavioral features:

(1) decline in personal hygiene and grooming

(2) mental rigidity and inflexibility

(3) distractibility and impersistence

(4) hyperorality and dietary changes

(5) perseverative and stereotyped behavior

(6) utilization behavior


Supportive criteria - speech and language:

(1) altered speech output (press of speech, aspontaneity and economy of speech)

(2) stereotypy of speech

(3) echolalia

(4) perseveration

(5) mutism


Supportive criteria - physical signs:

(1) primitive reflex

(2) incontinence

(3) akinesia

(4) rigidity

(5) tremor

(6) low or labile blood pressure


Supportive criteria - diagnostic tests:

(1) neuropsychological tests: impaired frontal lobe tests; no amnesia; no perceptual deficits

(2) EEG: normal on conventional EEG despite obvious clinical dementia

(3) brain imaging: abnormalities predominantly affecting the frontal and/or anterior temporal lobes


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.