Baroreflex failure needs to be distinguished from a number of other conditions that can have similar clinical findings.


Endocrine disorders:

(1) pheochromocytoma

(2) pseudopheochromocytoma

(3) carcinoid tumor

(4) hyperthyroidism


Cardiovasular disorders:

(1) paroxysmal tachycardia

(2) orthostatic intolerance

(3) autonomic failure

(4) renovascular hypertension

(5) Page's syndrome


Neuropsychiatric disorders:

(1) anxiety disorders (panic attacks, other)

(2) cerebral vasculitis

(3) intracranial lesion

(4) migraine

(5) syncope



(1) medication effect

(2) drug abuse (amphetamines, cocaine)

(3) withdrawal reaction (alcohol, other)



(1) mast cell activation syndrome

(2) Munchhausen syndrome


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.