A saddle nose may develop in a patient with one or more risk factors affecting the structural integrity of the nose.


Factors associated with saddle nose:

(1) trauma

(2) previous rhinoplastic surgery

(3) congenital deficiency affected the nasal architecture

(4) certain racial groups (African, Asian)

(5) infectious diseases (syphilis, leprosy, bacterial septal abscess)

(6) autoimmune disease (Wegener's granulomatosis, vasculitis, relapsing polychondritis)

(7) sarcoidosis

(8) polymorphic reticulosis

(9) cocaine abuse

(10) repeated application of oxymetazoline or other vasoconstrictive drugs to the nasal septum

(11) lymphoproliferative disorders (lethal midline granuloma, malignant lymphoma, T-cell tumor)

(12) epithelial tumors (inverting papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, esthesioneuroblastoma)


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