Some conditions causing heart failure may be associated with a high cardiac output.
Causes of high-output heart failure:
(1) wet beriberi (thiamine deficiency)
(3) arteriovenous shunts or fistulas (including hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia)
(4) Paget's disease of bone
(6) severe anemia
(7) multiple myeloma
Typical findings in high-output failure:
(1) increased cardiac output
(2) low systemic vascular resistance and hypotension
(3) sodium retention
(4) neurohumoral activation
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Purpose: To identify conditions associated with high-output cardiac failure.
Objective: clinical diagnosis, including family history for genetics, laboratory tests, severity, prognosis, stage