Some conditions causing heart failure may be associated with a high cardiac output.


Causes of high-output heart failure:

(1) wet beriberi (thiamine deficiency)

(2) hyperthyroidism

(3) arteriovenous shunts or fistulas (including hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia)

(4) Paget's disease of bone

(5) pregnancy

(6) severe anemia

(7) multiple myeloma


Typical findings in high-output failure:

(1) increased cardiac output

(2) low systemic vascular resistance and hypotension

(3) sodium retention

(4) neurohumoral activation


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