Eryoptosis refers to erythrocyte self-destruction in a process similar to apoptosis.


(1) cell shrinkage (with microspherocytes)

(2) cell membrane blebbing

(3) changes in cell membrane phospholipids with phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface

(4) leakage of calcium ion into the erythrocyte


Eryoptotic red cells may:

(1) adhere to vascular walls and affect the microcirculation

(2) be removed by the spleen with anemia if removal exceeds erythropoiesis


Conditions with increased eryoptosis:

(1) diabetes mellitus

(2) renal insufficiency

(3) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

(4) sepsis or systemic infection

(5) malaria

(6) iron deficiency

(7) hemoglobinopathy (sickle cell, thalassemia, other)

(8) G6PD deficiency

(7) hereditary spherocytosis

(8) PNH

(9) Wilson's disease

(10) myelodysplastic syndrome

(11) phosphate and/or energy depletion

(12) hyperthermia

(13) toxic exposures with oxidative stress

(14) hyperosmolar shock

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