Grooming of the nails can prevent problems if done correctly, or it can cause problems if not.


Nails Involved

Term for Nail Care



toe nails



Risk factors for problems:

(1) diabetes mellitus

(2) immunosuppression

(3) chemotherapy

(4) radiation exposure to digits

(5) dense fibrosis or scarring around nails

(6) brittle nails

(7) psoriasis

(8) other onychodystrophies

(9) overly aggressive nail care or performing unwise procedures, including resection of cuticle

(10) excessive moisture exposure during daily activities

(11) ingrown nails

(12) colonization or infection with micro-organisms (Candida, Staphylococcal aureus, Pseudomonas, Candida) for the nail groomer or client

(13) allergy to component of a nail care product

(14) inexperienced nail care professional

(15) excessive movement in client's digits (tremor, other)



Risk Factor


diabetes, immunosuppression, damage to the cuticle, damage to adjacent skin

staining of the nail plate

nail polish

contact dermatitis

allergen in nail polish or nail care product

onychoschizia (horizontal layering and splitting)

brittle nail, failure to moisten prior to cutting

ingrown nails

cutting nail corners excessively and repeatedly

skin cut

sharp nail edge (fail to adequately file)

trauma to skin or nail

excessive movement, overly aggressive nail care


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