An indwelling urinary catheter can cause a number of problems, both for the patient and for society.


Infectious complications for the patient:

(1) cystitis

(2) pyelonephritis

(3) prostatitis or orchitis in males

(4) bacteremia/sepsis syndrome

(5) osteomyelitis, meningitis, etc (distant foci of infection)


Non-infectious complications for the patient:

(1) urethral strictures

(2) formation of encrusting deposits which can obstruct the lumen (associated with urease-producing bacteria)

(3) formation of stones in the bladder and/or renal pelvis


These complications result in increased morbidity and mortality for the patient.


Other consequences resulting from indwelling urinary catheters:

(1) development of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms

(2) increased health care costs


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.