A number of problems may arise involving the sites of vascular access needed to perform apheresis.


Complications associated with vascular access:

(1) hematoma often with distal bruising

(2) external bleeding

(3) thrombosis of the catheter

(4) catheter-related infection

(5) arteriovenous fistula

(6) pseudoaneurysm

(7) neuropathy


Risk factors for complications:

(1) difficult venipuncture

(2) inexperienced operator

(3) coagulopathy or hypercoagulable state

(4) small, fragile vessels

(5) failure to follow sterile procedures

(6) repeated access attempts at the same site

(7) anatomical variation


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