A neonate with Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) may develop a transient myeloproliferative disorder (transient abnormal myelopoiesis or TAM). A number of early and late complications may occur.


Complications that may be noted in a neonate with trisomy 21 and TAM:

(1) hydrops fetalis

(2) congestive heart failure (CHF)

(3) pericardial and/or pleural effusion

(4) respiratory failure

(5) cholestatic liver disease with progressive hepatic fibrosis

(6) multi-organ failure (MOF)


About 10% of neonates with trisomy 21 and TAM may die in the first few months of life.


Up to 30% of infants with TAM may develop acute leukemia during the first year of life.


Cytostatic therapy with low-dose cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) may be beneficial in patients with serious complications. This is stopped once there is clinical improvement.


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