Hypophosphatemia may be associated with a number of complications in the perioperative period, especially after cardiac or other major surgery.


Possible complications:

(1) heart failure

(2) profound muscle weakness with or without rhabdomyolysis

(3) respiratory insufficiency secondary to muscle weakness

(4) nervous system dysfunction

(5) metabolic acidosis

(6) poor glycemic control



(1) presence of hypophosphatemia (serum inorganic phosphorus very low)

(2) presence of one or more complications

(3) absence of alternative explanation

(4) correction of complications following phosphate repletion


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