Diabetes during pregnancy may be associated with morbidity and mortality for the fetus and mother. Certain findings may indicate a high risk for complications and warrant more aggressive management.

Factors of Pedersen and Molsted-Pedersen:

(1) "late enrollers" (no prenatal care)

(2) "neglectors" (no modification of lifestyle for pregnancy, with poor diabetic control)

(3) toxemia

(4) febrile pyelonephritis


White's diabetic classes associated with risk to the fetus:

(1) nephropathy with hypertension (F)

(2) cardiopathy (H)

(3) vasculopathy with calcifications in major arteries of pelvis and lower extremity (E, D4)



(1) extremely brittle diabetes (may be managed with use of an insulin pump)

(2) severe ketoacidosis

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.