A lesion involving upper motor neurons will result in a number of clinical findings.


Locations of the upper motor neurons:

(1) premotor cortex and supplementary motor area

(2) primary motor neurons


Descending tracts:

(1) limbic motor area

(2) vestibulospinal tracts

(3) reticulospinal tracts

(4) tectospinal tracts

(5) corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts (lateral and ventral pyramidal tracts)


Clinical findings:

(1) decrease in dexterity

(2) slowing of movements

(3) muscle weakness

(4) spastic muscles

(5) pathologic reflexes and pathologic hyperreflexia

(6) pseudobulbar palsy (if cranial motor neurons affected)


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.