Hypocalcemia can have profound effects on a patient, depending on its severity and duration.
Clinical findings in hypocalcemia:
(1) neuromuscular irritability
(1a) tingling in the fingers and toes
(1b) perioral paresthesias
(1c) tetany (with positive Trousseau's or Chvostek's sign)
(1d) grand mal seizures
(1f) ECG changes (prolonged QT interval, conduction abnormalities, QRS and ST segment changes mimicking myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias)
(1g) congestive heart failure
(2) rickets or osteomalacia
(3) dystrophic calcifications (when hyperphosphatemia present)
(3b) calcification of the basal ganglia with an extrapyramidal disorder
• Trousseau sign is a carpal spasm elicited after inflating a blood pressure cuff for several minutes.
• Chvostek sign is a grimace elicited by tapping the facial nerve below the zygoma.
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Specialty: Endocrinology, Clinical Laboratory