A number of clinical findings may be encountered in a person with somnambulism (sleep walking).

Clinical findings:

(1) The onset is often during childhood.

(2) A family history of somnambulism is common.

(3) It tends to occur during the first third of the night.

(4) It tends to occur during slow-wave sleep.

(5) There is a risk for injury or violence.

(6) There is a high arousal threshold.

(7) The person may respond to external stimulation or verbal questions.

(8) Full awakening after an episode is infrequent.

(9) The person can leave the bedroom and navigate familiar surroundings.

(10) The person's eyes may be open during an episode.

(11) The person may be confused or disoriented if wakened.

(12) The person often has partial or complete amnesia for an event.


Risk factors:

(1) sleep deprivation

(2) stress

(3) noise

(4) obstructive sleep apnea

(5) periodic leg movement

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