Exposure of a mother during pregnancy can be teratogenic for a developing fetus. The exposure may be occupational or as solvent abuse.


An exposed fetus has an increased risk for stillbirth or perinatal death.


Developmental features:

(1) prematurity

(2) small for gestational age, with low birth weight

(3) growth deficiency following delivery

(4) developmental delay


Craniofacial features:

(1) microcephaly

(2) micrognathia

(3) short palpebral fissures

(4) narrow bifrontal diameter

(5) abnormal patterns to scalp hair

(6) thin upper lip

(7) wide nasal bridge

(8) hypoplastic midface

(9) ear anomalies

(10) downturned corners of the mouth


Features of the hands and feet:

(1) nail hypoplasia

(2) blunt fingertips

(3) abnormal palmar creases

(4) clinodactyly


Other features:

(1) abnormal muscle tone

(2) renal anomalies


Differential diagnosis: Includes fetal alcohol and neonatal withdrawal syndromes.


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