Any process involving the orbital apex can result in the Orbital Apex Syndrome (OAS).


Clinical features of the orbital apex syndrome may include:

(1) retro-orbital pain

(2) proptosis

(3) altered vision, including double vision, blurred vision, reduced visual acuity and blindness

(4) ophthalmoplegia due to involvement of Cranial Nerves III, IV and VI

(5) ptosis

(6) afferent papillary defect

(7) sensory disturbances along the first (ophthalmic) division of Cranial Nerve V

(8) variable signs of orbital inflammation (lid edema, chemosis)


Differential diagnosis:

(1) superior orbital fissure syndrome


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