The Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome (IVCS) is associated with a number of clinical findings associated with an obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC).
Obstruction may be:
(1) below the level of the renal veins
(2) below the liver
(3) within the liver (intrahepatic)
(4) between the liver and the right atrium
Clinical findings may include:
(1) abdominal pain
(3) anasarca of the lower extremities and genitalia (scrotum in males)
(4) collateral venous circulation
(5) renal dysfunction
Obstruction within the liver is associated with the Budd-Chiari syndrome and/or hepatomegaly.
Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating occlusion of the inferior vena cava on an imaging study.
(1) intestinal perforation (secondary to infarction of the intestinal wall)
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