Craig and Goyal reported clinical features associated with sphenoid sinus fractures. The authors are from Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York.

Location of fractures:

(1) carotid canal

(2) sphenoid roof

(3) lateral wall

(4) intersinus septum

(5) posterior wall



(1) penetrating injury

(2) motor vehicle accident

(3) fall

(4) blunt trauma (assault)



(1) nasal leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

(2) blunt carotid artery injury (BCAI)


Predictors for CSF leak:

(1) penetrating injury.

(2) sphenoid roof fracture

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