Following menopause many women may develop vaginal dryness and atrophy. This is related to the reduction of endogenous estrogens. Both women and clinicians may be reluctant to discuss the problem.



(1) vaginal and/or vulvar pain or aching

(2) dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

(3) genital burning, itching and/or irritation

(4) urinary tract symptoms

(5) decreased sexual drive and/or impaired arousal



(1) vaginal mucosa dry and pale

(2) reduction in mucosal ridges and folds

(3) mucosal friable and easily traumatized

(4) erythema, petechiae and other signs of inflammation


Laboratory findings:

(1) vaginal fluid pH > 5.0

(2) atrophy in cytology


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