Severe iodine deficiency during a pregnancy can result in the fetus becoming a cretin.


Consequences of severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy:

(1) stillbirth with abortion

(2) congenital malformations


If the fetus survives to birth, then the patient may show the neurologic pattern, the myxedematous pattern, or both (mixed pattern).


Neurologic-type of cretin:

(1) severe mental retardation

(2) deaf-mutism

(3) spastic diplegia

(4) squint


Myxedematous-type cretin:

(1) short stature

(2) hypothyroidism with goiter

(3) severe mental retardation


Factors affecting severity of the syndrome:

(1) severity of the iodine deficiency during the pregnancy

(2) ongoing iodine deficiency

(3) amount of iodine replacement received

(4) other nutritional and health issues


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