Chronic intake of vitamin A can result in toxicity.


Risk factors:

(1) chronic high doses of vitamin supplements

(2) chronic intake in foods high in vitamin A (liver)

(3) decreased serum retinol-binding protein (protein malnutrition, liver disease)


General findings:

(1) anorexia and weight loss

(2) alopecia

(3) anemia

(4) bone pain and tenderness, with osteoporosis

(5) joint pain

(6) cheilitis and/or angular stomatitis

(7) hepatotoxicity with hepatomegaly

(8) increased CNS pressure, with pseudotumor cerebri and/or headache, eventually causing coma

(9) dermatitis with erythema and/or desquamation and/or pruritis

(10) fatigue

(11) hyperostosis

(12) papilledema and/or photophobia


Findings in children:

(1) bulging fontanelles (in infants)

(2) craniotabes

(3) premature epiphyseal closure


Findings in adults:

(1) brittle nails

(2) conjunctivitis

(3) diarrhea

(4) diplopia

(5) dry mucous membranes

(6) dysuria

(7) edema

(8) bleeding (epistaxis, petechiae, menstrual irregularities in women)

(9) nausea and vomiting

(10) splenomegaly

(11) ataxia

(12) insomnia

(13) irritability and nervousness

(14) muscle stiffness and pain

(15) polydypsia

(16) fever


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