A fistula between the urinary bladder and vagina (vesicovaginal fistula, or VVF) can result in a variety of clinical findings. The social stigma may result in significant distress to the affected women.


Cause of the fistula may include:

(1) complications following labor and delivery

(2) gynecologic surgery

(3) trauma, including crude attempts at abortiom

(4) malignancy


Clinical findings:

(1) continuous (or nearly continuous) urinary incontinence

(2) incontinence dermatitis in the perineum

(3) recurrent urinary tract infections

(4) distress and social isolation


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