A fistula may develop between a kidney and the pleural space and/or bronchus.
(1) cutaneous nephrostomy tube placed to the upper kidney via the pleural space, especially if the obstruction persists after removal of the tube (staghorn calculus, etc)
(4) perinephric abscess
Clinical features of renobronchial fistula:
(1) productive cough
(2) urine taste in the mouth
(5) pleural effusion with a high creatinine concentration
(7) flank pain
(2) renal abscess or echinococcal cyst
(3) renal staghorn calculus
(4) ipsilateral diaphragmatic elevation
(5) pleural effusion
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