Pectus carinatum (carinatum = ridge or keel) is a congenital deformity with protrusion of all or part of the anterior chest wall. This may be symmetrical but usually is asymmetrical.
Synonym: pigeon breast
Types of deformity:
(1) chondromanubrial - protrusion of the upper sternum
(2) xyphoidal - protrusion at the xyphoid process
(3) "pouter pigeon breast (Ravitch) - chondromanubrial protrusion over upper chest and retraction (excavatum deformity) over the lower part
(1) Some cases are familial.
(2) Most patients are male.
(3) The chest shows a narrow lateral width and there is a reduced respiratory excursion.
(4) The patient may complain of:
(4a) shortness of breath on exertion with tachypnea
(4b) reduced endurance during exercise
(4c) exercise-induced wheezing
(5) About a third of patients have mild to moderate scoliosis.
(6) Embarrassment or psychological distress
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