A fracture of the orbital floor is relatively common and may occur as an isolated defect or mixed with other injuries. The most common site involves the posteromedial floor.


Occurrence: may follow impacts with low to moderate energy (small missiles, punches, sport impact)


Clinical features:

(1) vertical diplopia

(2) rounding of extraocular muscle on CT scan

(3) orbital emphysema

(4) displacement of the globe down (hypo-ophthalmos) and/or inwards (enophthalmos), as orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus

(5) oculocardiac reflex

(6) dilation or other abnormality of the pupil

(7) decreased sensation or numbness (hypesthesia) of Cranial Nerve V2 (infraorbital)


Medical management for orbital emphysema:

(1) The patient should avoid blowing his/her nose.

(2) Prophylactic antibiotics are indicated until the emphysema resolves.


Indications for surgical correction:

(1) evidence of entrapped muscle or orbital tissue on imaging studies

(2) significant diplopia affecting the field of gaze

(3) significant enophthalmos

(4) oculocardiac reflex

(5) large fracture of the floor (> 50% of area on imaging studies)


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.