A fistula may develop between the carotid artery and adjacent cavernous sinus.


The fistula may arise following head trauma or occur spontaneously.


Clinical findings:

(1) chemosis

(2) intracranial bruit

(3) oculomotor palsy

(4) exophthalmos


Usually the fistula is unilateral but occasionally it can be bilateral.


The presence of a fistula can be demonstrated by angiography.


The fistula can often be closed by embolization of the cavernous sinus (by direct puncture, via the superior ophthalmic vein,e tc).


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