A bronchogenic cyst is usually located in the anterior mediastinum, around the hilum, or some other intrathoracic location. Rarely these congenital cysts may occur in the neck.
Embryologic source: foregut, as a budding off from the tracheobronchial tree
Possible locations in the head and neck:
(1) in the midline of the neck above the sternum
(2) in the anterolateral neck above the sternum
Size: up to 3 cm
The lesions may be asymptomatic or they may cause symptoms (cough, stridor, dysphagia, dyspnea, other) due to compression of adjacent structures.
(1) a unilocalar, fluid-filled cyst
(2) homogeneous with a high attenuation
(3) The CT image does not enhance after administration of contrast material.
(4) An MRI shows increased signal on T2-weighted images.
Pathologic features of the cyst:
(1) respiratory type epithelium
(2) mucinous glands
(3) hyaline cartilage in the wall
(4) smooth muscle
(3) neoplasia (adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, other)
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