Wong et al reported a classification for umbilical presentation and prolapse. The authors are from Prince of Wales Hospital and the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Points of interest: cord location, cervix, presenting fetal part


Umbilical Cord

Other Findings


below the cervix

below the presenting fetal part; further classified as inside or outside of the vagina

cord prolapse

above the cervix

below the presenting fetal part

cord presentation

above the cervix

alongside the presenting part

compound cord presentation


The membranes may be ruptured or intact for each.

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