Miller classified denial of pregnancy into 3 basic types.

Type of Denial



completely unaware of pregnancy, with signs and symptoms absent or ascribed to other causes


intellectually aware of the pregnancy, but show little if any emotional or behavioral change


psychosis makes it impossible for the mother to comprehend that she is pregnant


A woman with pervasive denial may not realize that she is pregnant until she is in labor.


A woman with affective denial may want to continue in her current lifestyle without making any adjustments. This may include continued substance abuse.


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