A Chiari malformation type I involves ectopia of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. It can be diagnosed on imaging studies but may present with a range of signs and symptoms.

Most common signs and symptoms:

(1) headache, typically occipital (64%)

(2) neck and/or back pain

(3) snoring

(4) persistent hiccups

(5) paresthesia in an upper extremity


Variable signs and symptoms (< 10%):

(1) vertigo

(2) visual disorder

(3) ataxia

(4) sleep apnea

(5) hearing loss

(6) opisthotonus

(7) head tilt

(8) dysphagia

(9) drooling

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