Venous hum is a murmur caused by turbulent flow in the great veins of the neck. It needs ot be distinguished from a murmur associated with a cardiac valve.


Features of venous hum:

(1) The murmur occupies both systole and diastole (continuous).

(2) It has an intensity of Grade II or III.

(3) It is usually heard best over to the right of the upper sternum, less often to the left.

(4) It is made louder if the person sits upright.

(5) It disappeara of the jugular veins are compressed.


Differential diagnosis:

(1) patent ductus arteriosus (if heard best to the left of the upper sternum.


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