A number of conditions may be associated with the inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS). Therapy is often directed by knowledge of the underlying cause.
(1) thrombosis secondary to hypercoagulable syndrome (antiphospholipid syndrome, other)
(2) tumor thrombus (renal carcinoma, adrenal carcinoma, other)
(3) leiomyosarcoma or other tumor of the inferior vena cava
(4) thrombosis of an IVC filter (Greenfield, other)
Extrinsic compression or other involvement:
(2) benign cyst
(3) parasitic cyst
(4) morbid obesity
(5) intra-abdominal hemorrhage
(7) foreign body
The term idiopathic obstruction of the IVC is used when none of the above conditions are present. Some may be due to development of a congenital membrane that obstructs the inferior vena cava.
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