Most hiccups are intermittent and self-limited. The inciting cause can often be identified by the preceding events.
Acute distention of the stomach while eating:
(2) eating too fast
Acute distention of the stomach by air or gas:
(1) drinking carbonated beverages
(2) aerophagia (may occur while eating and talking at the same time)
(3) air insufflation during gastroscopy
Sudden change in temperature:
(1) taking a cold shower
(2) entering or leaving a hot or cold room
(3) drinking very hot or very cold food or beverages
(1) alcohol ingestion
(2) excessive smoking (may be related to emotional stress or excitement, vs toxic effects of nicotine)
Emotional stress or excitement (may be related to aerophagia)
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