Mania can be caused by a number of causes of brain injury.

Causes of secondary mania include:

(1) subdural hematoma

(2) cerebrovascular disease

(3) head trauma

(4) primary or secondary brain tumor

(5) cerebral infection

(6) drug effect

(7) vitamin B12 deficiency

(8) anoxic encephalopathy

(9) withdrawal reaction

(10) multiple sclerosis


When to consider the possibility of secondary mania:

(1) onset in older adult

(2) absence of previous psychiatric illness

(3) negative family history for bipolar disease

(4) reversal of mania on correction of the cause

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