A number of conditions may mimic true dystonia. These conditions can result in a sustained postures.


Causes of pseudodystonia:

(1) psychiatric conditions

(1a) Munchausen syndrome

(1b) hysteria

(1c) malingering

(2) othropedic disorders

(2a) rotational atlanto-axial subluxation

(2b) ligamentous disorder (laxity, damage, absence, etc)

(2c) bone disease

(3) torticollis

(3a) congenital muscular torticollis

(3b) congenital postural torticollis

(3c) Klippel-Feil syndrome

(3d) soft tissue mass in neck

(3e) vestibular torticollis

(4) neurologic disorders

(4a) tumor in the posterior fossa

(4b) syringomyelia

(4c) Arnold Chiari malformation

(4d) trochlear nerve palsy

(4e) epilepsy (with sustained twisting postures)

(4f) Isaacs syndrome (with continuous firing in peripheral nerves)

(5) gastroesophageal reflux

(5a) hiatal hernia

(5b) Sandifer-Kinsbourne syndrome

(6) stiff man syndrome

(7) Satoyoshi syndrome


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