Penetrating injuries of the tracheobronchial wall can be due to a number of factors.


(1) trauma - penetrating or blunt

(2) iatrogenic

(3) accidental aspiration of a foreign object


Iatrogenic causes:

(1) endotracheal intubation

(2) rigid bronchoscopy

(3) balloon bronchoplasty

(4) endoscopic procedure (EUS-TBNA, etc)

(5) surgery

(6) tracheostomy

(7) tracheobronchial stent removal

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