A number of conditions can result in depletion of magnesium with hypomagnesemia.


Conditions that can result in magnesium depletion:

(1) diuretics (thiazides, loop-blocking, others; exception: acetazolamide)

(2) drug-induced nephrotoxicity (cisplatin, cyclosporine, aminoglycoside, other)

(3) post-obstructive diuresis or diuresis after acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

(4) chronic diuresis

(5) chronic glomerulonephritis

(6) chronic tubulointerstitial disease of the kidney

(7) renal tubular acidosis

(8) phosphate depletion

(9) hereditary renal magnesium wasting

(10) alcohol abuse (renal wastage, poor intake, diarrhea)

(11) protein-calorie malnutrition

(12) parenteral nutrition without magnesium supplementation

(13) malabsorption

(14) familial magnesium malabsorption

(15) biliary fistula

(16) intestinal fistula

(17) severe diarrhea

(18) laxative abuse, including bulimia

(19) excessive nasogastric suction

(20) prolonged vomiting

(21) hyperaldosteronism

(22) hyperthyroidism

(23) hyperparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism

(24) diabetes mellitus, especially with ketoacidosis

(25) excessive lactation

(26) acute intermittent porphyria

(27) theophylline toxicity

(28) toxemia of pregnancy or eclampsia

(29) active Paget's disease of bone (increased bone uptake)

(30) acute pancreatitis

(31) multiple exchange transfusions

(32) transfusion with a large amount of citrated blood (transient)

(33) extensive burns

(34) excessive sweating


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