Hemolytic anemia can be caused by several conditions with different mechanisms.

Intrinsic red cell defect:

(1) abnormal red cell membrane (spherocytosis, ovalocytosis, elliptocytosis, stomatocytosis, pyropoikilocytosis)

(2) enzymopathy (G6PD deficiency, pyruvate kinase, other)

(3) hemoglobinopathy (hemoglobin C, other)

(4) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)


Extrinsic cause:

(1) immune-mediated

(1a) autoimmune

(1b) alloimmune

(2) mechanical

(2a) microthrombotic: DIC, HUS, vasculitis, TTP

(2b) heart valves and prosthetic materials

(2c) burns

(2d) disseminated cancer

(3) osmotic (drowning, water infusion)

(4) toxic (snake, drug, other)

(5) infectious disease (clostridial toxin, leptospirosis, other)


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.