Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be associated with a number of conditions. Controlling the cause is important for managing the patient.


Secondary causes of FSGS:

(1) HIV-associated nephropathy

(2) heroin nephropathy

(3) lithium

(4) interferon

(5) pamidronate

(6) genetic mutations in alpha-actinin-4

(7) genetic mutations in podocin

(8) diabetes mellitus

(9) hypertension

(10) obesity

(11) cyanotic congential heart disease

(12) sickle cell disease

(13) oligomeganephronia

(14) unilateral renal agenesis

(15) renal dysplasia

(16) reflux nephropathy

(17) following renal cortical necrosis

(18) surgical renal ablation

(19) chronic allograft nephropathy

(20) any advanced renal disease with a reduction in functional nephrons



• Causes 13 to 20 are associated with reduced renal mass.


If none of the secondary causes are identified then the FSGS may be primary (idiopathic).


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