A person who abuses opioids ("extramedical use") has an increased risk of early death. Death may be due to a range of conditions that must be considered when determining the cause of death.

Factors affecting risk:

(1) injection drug abuse

(2) mixed drug abuse

(3) infectious disease (HIV, hepatitis C)

(4) criminal activity


Causes of death may include:

(1) suicide

(2) violence (homicide)

(3) accidental/unintentional injury

(4) cancer

(5) liver disease

(6) AIDS

(7) other infectious diseases

(8) overdose

(9) other poisoning

(10) other noncommunicable disorders (renal, cardiac, respiratory, etc)

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