A number of conditions are associated with chylomicronemia. Identifying the cause is essential to plan an appropriate therapeutic regimen.


Primary hyperlipidemias with chylomicronemia:

(1) familial hypertriglyceridemia (autosomal dominant, severe form)

(2) familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I (lipoprotein lipase deficiency; autosomal recessive)

(3) familial C-II apoliporprotein deficiency


Secondary chylomicronemias:

(1) hypothyroidism

(2) diet high in saturated fats and carbohydrates

(3) anorexia nervosa

(4) chronic alcohol abuse (with alcoholic steatohepatitis)

(5) metabolic syndrome (with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis)

(6) other lipodystrophies

(7) HIV infection

(8) chronic renal disease

(9) acute spinal injury

(10) Cushing's syndrome

(11) organ transplantation

(12) sarcoidosis

(13) systemic lupus erythematosus

(14) multiple myeloma

(15) drug-induced

(15a) steroids (corticosteroids, estrogens)

(15b) tamoxifen

(15c) antiretroviral therapy

(15d) 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin)

(15e) hydrochlorothiazide

(15f) nonselective beta-blockers

(15e) clozapine or olanzapine


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